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Chapter 1 – The Chaste Leader

The life of a human being is distinct and different as compared to all other creatures. While all creatures are subservient to the laws of nature and are involuntarily passing through the evolutionary stages of their lives, man on this wide and extensive earth is capable of leading his life according to his will and intention.

Man was always been in need of a leader to hold his hand while traversing the vicissitudes of life. A leader – who will enlighten his path and protect him from deviations so that man should not slip into the abyss of misguidance.

Leadership is not a concept, which is restricted to a particular time, place, person or group. Rather it is essential in every era and at all places. In fact, it is an indispensable necessity. It is the leader, which has often elevated man to the pinnacle of perfection, while at other times the same leader has dumped him in the pit of disgrace. The leader was and always will he held responsible – both for the success and prosperity or for the humiliation and failure of the society.

The last two centuries – as compared to the earlier ones – saw a rise in various schools of thought and ideology. The purpose of every ideology was to help man achieve his goal and destination. All these schools propounded their own viewpoints and doctrines. But history is a witness to the fact that none of them could achieve their aims. Instead, they aggravated the afflictions and troubles, sorrow and sufferings of the common man.

Various schools of thoughts have tried to impress man by their outward attraction and have succeeded to a certain extent. Hordes of people were indeed attracted towards them just as a thirsty man is pulled towards a mirage. These people – bereft of a leader – accepted these flawed ideologies so that the tree of hope could once again grow in in this new soil. But they finally returned back with more dejection and frustration while their thirst had become more intense. Because they did not find anything in their teachings that would give them peace of mind and comfort their heart. Thus they became dejected with life. After numerous frustrations and stumbles, some intellectuals were finally compelled to turn towards ‘religion’ and ‘spirituality’.

This ‘return’ underlined the fact that man can find the right path only in the light of decisive and firm divine laws. Since, the man made laws, do not extend beyond the realm of the mind, they rarely lead him to his goals. Rather very often they lead him to dilemmas, which defy his expectations. Thus, it becomes very clear for him that his distress will keep on piling and he will never attain salvation. In fact, Allah alone can lead man to the path of salvation, because He is our Creator, Establisher of order in the Universe and Cognizant of all human needs. He selected some of the best men and sent these chosen ones as His Prophets to mankind. These Prophets were supposed to expose the known and unknown enemies of Allah and lead men from the darkness of misguidance towards the radiance of guidance.

Prophets

They were the Messengers of Allah, who persevered against all odds for fulfilling their divine responsibilities and never sought any reward from the people. Rather they always tolerated the afflictions and oppressions inflicted upon them by their enemies, which often resulted in their martyrdom.[1]

But Allah, the Almighty, did not suspend His series of Messengers due to these atrocities. He sent them to every clan and tribe, as the standard-bearers of freedom and knowledge[2] so that these Prophets – like clouds – may shower His Mercy on humanity and satiate them to the depth of their hearts with a spell of exhilarating life. They were sent also to remind the people of their forgotten covenant so that they may be conscious of it and abide by it.[3]

When the whole world was plunged into the complete darkness and history was passing through a chaotic phase; while mankind was drowned in the ocean of ignorance and oblivion, at such a time, the Omnipotent Allah sent His last Messenger in the scorchingdesertofArabia- a Prophet who surpassed all the previous divine representatives. Allah raised him (s.a.w.a.) so that His message could be known to the whole of mankind.

یَآ اَیُّھَا النَّاسُ اِنِّیْ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰہِ اِلَیْکُمْ جَمِیْعًا.

“O people! I am the messenger of Allah for all of you”[4]

This Prophet of Mercy, with the best of morals and conduct, was appointed as a prophet from the mountain of “light” andcaveofHera, so that for the last time he may raise the call for freedom of man, liberate him from all sorts of shackles and guide him towards Allah.

His appointment was to end racial and superstitious differences, eliminate ignorant centres of authority as well as erroneous modes of worship and establish the bonds of equality and brotherhood everywhere. His divine responsibility also included the reviving the faith in One Allah and to establish the commands of Allah through Holy Quran as well as to introduce his Ahlul Bait (a.s.). So that mankind may lead a life of happiness and never stray from the right path upto the dawn of Qiyamat.

Islam and Leadership

No divine religion other than Islam has advocated and discussed the concept of leadership. It can be said that in Islamic teachings, a great amount of emphasis has been laid on the appointment of a leader. No doubt, guidance is from Allah and the series of divine vicegerents or leaders are for guiding mankind towards Allah:

اِنَّ عَلَیْنَا لَلْھُدٰی…

“And upon Us is the guidance …”[5]

In Islam, only a virtuous and pious man can be a leader. A great amount of emphasis is laid upon the recognition of such a leader. So much so that the one who dies without recognizing his Imam or leader, then as per the saying of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), he dies a death of ignorance.

مَنْ مَاتَ وَلَمْ یَعْرِفْ اِمَامَ زَمَانِہِ مَاتَ مِیْتَۃً جَاھِلِیَّۃً.

“The one who dies without recognizing the Imam of his time, dies a death of ignorance [6]

Islam has explicitly declared that the earth will never remain devoid from the existence of an Imam or Leader. There are traditions, which state that an Imam will exist till the last moment of this world. As Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says:

لَوْ لَمْ یَبْقَ فِیْ الْاَرْضِ اِلَّا اِثْنَانِ لَکَانَ اَحَدُھُمَا الْحُجَّۃَ.

“Even if two persons were to remain on the earth then one of them will be the vicegerent of Allah.”[7]

It is the decree of Allah that all men – in every era and every place – should benefit by this bounty of leadership. The survival of this earth and its inhabitants is entirely dependent on the existence of an Imam. As Imam Baqir (a.s.) has said:

لَوْ اَنَّ الْاِمَامَ رُفِعَ مِنَ الْاَرْضِ سَاعَۃً لَسَاخَتْ بِاَھْلِھَا وَمَا جَتْ کَمَا یَمُوْجُ الْبَحْرُ بِاَھْلِہٖ.

If this world were to remain devoid of an Imam even for a single moment then it will swallow its inhabitants.”[8]

Thus by now, it must have become sufficiently clear how much importance has been given to an Imam in the religion of Islam.

A cursory glance on the life of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) reveals that he (s.a.w.a.) had always strived during his own life, to introduce his successor to the people so that they may continue to traverse the path of guidance and bliss. Along with his constant responsibility of spreading the message of Divine Unity, he (s.a.w.a.) would lose no opportunity in introducing his successor. He did all this so that there should not remain an iota of doubt in the minds of the people as to who are his (s.a.w.a.) successors. Upon his deathbed too, Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) kept on reiterating the names of his (s.a.w.a.) successors. His incessant efforts in his lifetime were only for the sake of guidance of Muslims, so that after his death they may not remain without a leader. History is a witness that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had introduced his successors repeatedly by his words and actions. These successors were those who would disseminate His message and confer eternity to it.

From the innumerable events in the life of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) we relate over here only three incidences in support of our aforementioned assertion. We will demonstrate that how tirelessly Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) strived to introduce Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as his immediate successor. All of his efforts were solely on the command of Allah and not a result of personal fancy, because all Muslims unanimously believe that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was undeniably an obedient servant of his Lord. He was not speaking anything on his own accord but it was as per the revelation of Allah.[9] Hence his command is the command of Allah and opposing his command is similar to opposing the command of Allah. As Holy Quran says:

وَمَا کَانَ لِمُوْمِنٍ وَّلَا مُوْمِنَۃٍ اِذَا قَضَی اللّٰہُ وَرَسُوْلُہُ اَمْرًا اَنْ یَّکُوْنَ لَھُمُ الْخِیَرَۃُ مِنْ اَمْرِھِمْ وَمَنْ یَّعْصِ اللّٰہَ وَرَسُوْلَہُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِیْنًا.

“It does not behove a believing man or woman to have a choice in a matter which is already decided by Allah and His Apostle. And whosoever opposes Allah and His Apostle then indeed he is in manifest error.”[10]

It is worth noting that the issue of Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s successorship is a matter already decided by Allah (s.w.t.) and His Apostle. Now no Muslim has any right to object in this matter or to supersede the decision of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

First Incident : Daawat-e-Zulashirah

In the first open banquet for his tribesmen i.e. elders of Bani Hashim, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) introduced the religion of Islam, invited them to accept the unity of Allah and to believe in his Prophethood. In this, gathering the determination and resolve of a youth astonished everyone. He alone responded to the clarion call of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and believed in him spontaneously. This youth was none other than Hazrat Ali (a.s.), who was the chosen successor of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).[11]

Second Incident : Ghadeer-e-Khum

The previous episode was of the early days of Islam when it did not have many followers and helpers in its fold. However the second incident is of the time when the message of Islam had spread far and wide due to its refreshing teachings and also the exemplary character of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and had attracted an enormous number of followers. On the plains of Ghadeer-e-Khum, in front of a mammoth crowd of around 1.25 lakh pilgrims the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) openly and unequivocally declared Hazrat Ali(a.s.) as his Divinely appointed successor. The only difference between the first and second incidents is that the former was a gathering involving a limited number of people (only tribesmen of Bani Hashim) while the in the later a massive crowd of pilgrims heard the announcement. Before all of them Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) – from a great the height and in the huge plains of Ghadeer – proclaimed that “Of whomsoever I am the master then this Ali too is his master (leader).”[12]

Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was the same man who was ever willing to sacrifice his life for Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and the cause of Islam. Muslims had already witnessed the heroic feats of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) in the battles they had fought. They all accepted the leadership of such a courageous leader with a cheerful approval.

Third Incident : Death-bed

This event relates to the final moments of the life of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) while he was on his death bed, extremely weak and frail. Even at such a delicate moment, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) did not hesitate in emphasizing the successorship and leadership of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). He likened his Ahlul Bait (a.s.) to the Holy Quran and asserted that both will never separate from each other. He specified them as the (only) source of salvation,[13]

In this way, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) clarified the issue of ‘Mastership’ and leadership for his people.

Not only these incidences from the life of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) testify to the successorship of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) but also many Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions can be found in its support. In one the verse, the Holy Quran has associated the obedience of ‘Ulil Amr’ with the obedience of Allah (s.w.t.) and His Apostle:

اَطِیْعُوْا اللّٰہَ وَاَطِیْعُوْا الرَّسُوْلَ وَاُوْلِی الْاَمْرِ مِنْکُمْ.

“Obey Allah and obey His Apostle and the Masters of Authority amongst you …..”[14]

This verse implies that it is obligatory to obey the Ulul Amr (Masters of Authority)’. It is unanimously agreed by all the sects of Islam that the Ulul Amr must be obeyed. The only bone of contention among the sects is who are ‘Masters of Authority’ (Ulul Amr)? According to Shi’ite belief, “Masters of Authority” are those men who are just, pious, erudite, the successors of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and whose words and deeds do not defy the commandments of Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.a.). They are preachers and defenders of Islam, exponents of Holy Quran and traditions, cognizant of Allah and other related sciences. The possessors of these attributes are only the twelve infallible Imams (a.s.). None of the (sunni) rulers or caliphs possessed such distinctions. These merits were seen in the pure and immaculate personalities of the twelve Imams and there are ample traditions from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in this regard.[15]

As it has been mentioned previously, since the beginning of his Prophethood till his last breath, Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) repeatedly and regularly announced his successor. In mosques, in battlefields, among the companions, inMecca, in Madina, in Hajj, in sermons, wherever he felt it necessary, Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) introduced his successor and showed the people their leader. We quote over here three verses from Holy Quran in order to prove that leadership is a Quranic issue and expounded by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) himself.

First Quranic Verse: Surah Maidah, 55

 

اِنَّمَا وَلِیُّکُمُ اللّٰہُ وَرَسُوْلُہٗ وَالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا الَّذِیْنَ یُقِیْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَیُوْتُوْنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَھُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ.

Verily your Master is Allah, His Apostle and those believers who establish prayers and pay Zakat in the state of bowing (ruku).

The point to be noted in this verse is that ‘Mastership’ of those who pay Zakat in ‘ruku’ is mentioned along with the Mastership of Allah and His Apostle. It purports that only those persons (who pay zakat while in ruku) can be the rulers of Muslim community after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).[16]

Abundant traditions are found in Shia and Sunni books, which state that this verse was revealed with reference to Hazrat Ali (a.s.), when he gave his ring to a beggar, while he himself was in ‘ruku’.[17]

According to this verse, after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), it is the right of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) to guide the people.

Second Quranic Verse: Sura Maidah, 67

یٰآاَیُّھَا الرُّسُوْلُ بَلِّغْ مَا اُنْزِلَ اِلَیْکَ مِنْ رَّبِّکَ وَاِنْ لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَہُ وَاللّٰہُ یَعْصِمُکَ مِنَ النَّاسِ

“O Apostle! Convey that which has been (already) revealed to you from your Lord. If you do not, then it is as if you have not conveyed anything at all. And Allah will protect you from the people.”

It can be inferred from this verse that whatever Allah (s.w.t.) has ordered His Messenger to convey to the people, must be really significant; negligence on the part of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) would tantamount to not conveying anything at all from the earlier divine messages. We know for sure that the Prophethood of Hazrat Mohammed Mustafa (s.a.w.a.) is the pinnacle of Nabuwat and his Messengership is the culmination of the toils of all the earlier Messengers. So the mystery deepens as to what was the message – which if not delivered by him (s.a.w.a.) would nullify not only his own endeavours but also the toils of the previous prophets. Certainly, it has to be the announcement of his (s.a.w.a.) successor — because an incompetent leader will certainly misguide and mislead the Islamic nation, thereby nullifying the struggles of the past prophets. And this would allow the deceptive and heinous reign of paganism and infidelity to prevail upon Islam.

Allamah Shaikh Abdul Husain Amini has quoted from Shia and Sunni sources, especially from 30 great Sunni scholars that this verse was revealed in praise of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). It was revealed when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was returning to Madina after performing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul Wida) and many of his companions were accompanying him. When he reached the plains of Ghadeer-e-Khum, he received this verse. At such an occasion, at such a place and before a massive crowd, he raised Hazrat Ali (a.s.) on his hands and declared him to be his immediate successor and the leader of Muslims after him (s.a.w.a.). It was to make them recognize their leader and realize their responsibilities towards him.

The world cannot produce again a mortal like Hazrat Ali (a.s.) who by his sheer sublimity became immortal in the annals of history. He was an epitome of all human, moral and divine attributes viz. piety, worship, bravery, leadership, erudition etc. He was a matchless and unique individual. He (a.s.) was the brother of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), his saviour, his aide and ultimately his successor. He alone was eligible to lead Muslims after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

Third Quranic Verse: Surah Maidah, 3

اَلْیَوْمَ اَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دِیْنَکُمْ وَاَتْمَمْتُ عَلیْکُمْ نِعْمَتِیْ وَرَضِیْتُ لَکُمُ الْاِسْلَامَ دِیْنًا

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favours upon you and am pleased with Islam as your religion.”

It is agreed by the majority of interpreters that this verse was revealed after the epoch making event of Ghadeer and confirmed the fact that religion was completed and perfected by the proclamation of Mastership and leadership of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). It means that Islam was incomplete without the announcement of Hazrat Ali’s (a.s.) leadership.[18]

Many treatise and exhaustive books have been written by Shia authors in this connection. ‘As-Sulaim ibn Qais’, Basaaerud Darajaat, Talkheesaush Shafi, Ghaayatul Maram, Ahqaaqul-Haq, Abaqatul Anwaar, Beharul Anwaar, Al Ghadeer are but few of the books, which give convincing proofs regarding the belief in Imamate.

But it is a deplorable fact of Islamic history that soon after the demise of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), despite his repeated reminders, some corrupt individuals in their lust for power and authority disregarded his (s.a.w.a.) admonition. They followed their whimsical desires and evil aspirations and usurped the right of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). Leadership which was the sole prerogative of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was snatched from him and his privileges were trampled.[19] This opened the path of deviation for the Muslims.

Nevertheless, Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was forced to accept the same responsibility in its apparent form after a period of 25 years. Muslims thronged to him from all sides and compelled him to accept the leadership of the nation. He ruled the Islamic world for a brief period of five years. But the whole world witnessed the true spirit of justice and fairness of Islam in that brief reign. Everyone remained awe-struck and to this day many are amazed, by the brilliant rays of justice and truth that radiated in the brief rule of Hazrat Ali (a.s.).

Alas! There are still some people whose eyes are blinded by prejudice and they cannot perceive these brilliant rays of truth. These people are biased and have inherited prejudice from their fore fathers and ancestors who were averse to the truth. The bigots are blindly following the deviated path and as a result are deprived of guidance and truth. But they have forgotten that:

وَاللّٰہُ مُتِمُّ نُوْرِہِ وَلَوْکَرِہَ الْکَافِرُوْنَ.

 “Allah will perfect His light, though the disbelievers may be averse.”[20]

The final words of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) were very important and preserved by the faithful hearts. The implications of Prophetic words were the introduction of two invaluable guides (i.e. Holy Quran and Ahlul Bait (a.s.)), the adherence to whom will lead mankind to the right path. When hundreds of companions were looking at the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), he in his last sermon said:

“O people! I have accepted the invitation of death from Allah and I shall soon depart. But I am leaving behind two precious things amongst you i.e. the Book of Allah, the Holy Quran and my Ahlul Bait (a.s.) (family members). After me, if you adhere to both of them, you will never go astray. The two will not separate until they meet me at Hauz-e-Kauthar.”

He (s.a.w.a.) continued:

“O Allah! Let this earth never remain devoid of their existence so that Your religion does not tread on the path of falsehood and Your friends may not go astray. Though these Vicegerents of Allah are few in number yet they are much honoured in the eyes of Allah.”[21]

Thus it becomes clear that Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had appointed some guides and leaders besides Holy Quran, who were to be his successors and the exponents of Holy Quran, the removers of differences and the interpreters of Divine signs. The Holy Quran is a profound collection of multi-dimensional concepts in its entirety. Hence, it is imperative that an expert should always be there by its side. Such a person is none other than the Imam. It is only he who can explain its meanings and solve the disputes. As Holy Quran, itself introduces them in these words:

بَلْ ھُوَ اٰیٰتٌ بَیِّنٰتٌ فِیْ صُدُوْرِ الَّذِیْنَ اُوْتُوْالْعِلْمَ.

 “Nay those are manifest signs in the hearts of those who are given knowledge.”[22]

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) himself had advocated his Ahlul Bait (a.s.) as a precious source of guidance against the perils of deviation. On another occasion, he compared his Ahlul Bait (a.s.) with the ship of salvation of H. Nuh (a.s.) for remaining safe from the waves of ruinous misguidance. He (s.a.w.a.) said

مَثَلُ اَھْلِ بَیْتِیْ فِیْکُمْ مَثَلُ سَفِیْنَۃٍ نُوْحٍ مَنْ رَکِبَھَا نَجٰی وَمَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنْھَا غَرِقَ.

‘The example of my Ahlul Bait amongst you is like the example of the ark of Nuh. The one who boards it will remain safe while the one who turns away from it will drown (in the waves of deviations and errors) [23]

In other traditions, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had enumerated the number and the names of his successors. In all such traditions the continuity of the path and message of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) lies in the Imamate and Wilayat (Mastership) of his (s.a.w.a.) Ahlul Bait[24] Thus, after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the reigns of the Islamic nation lie in the hands of the twelve Imams (a.s.)[25] – a number similar to the guards (Naqeeb) of Bani Israel. Each of these Imams (a.s.) is from the Quraish and all of them are infallible. The last link in this series of Imamate or leadership is Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.).

History – written by friends and foes – is a witness to the chaste and impeccable lives of the Eleven Imams (a.s.). Each Imam, with his holy existence, had carved a niche for himself in the history of Islam. These immortal leaders, like rays of sun have instilled a fresh life in an inert humanity by their sheer wisdom and knowledge. These sagacious personalities lifted a devastated and ravaged society to the pinnacle of prosperity and glory. They regularly imparted Islamic teachings and tenets according to the need of time and circumstances but due to some unfortunate reasons, they could not accomplish all of their plans. All such unaccomplished tasks were assigned to the last leader and were adjourned till his reappearance. A leader, who in the tenure of his Universal Government will replenish every corner of the earth with Islamic teachings and disseminate Islam in the entire world, Inshallah.



[1]     کُلَّمَا جّآئَھُمْ رَسُوْلٌ بِمَا لَا تَھْوٰی اَنْفُسُھُمْ فَرِیْقًا کَذَّبُوْا وَفَرِیْقًا یَقْتُلُوْنَ Whenever a prophet said a thing which they disliked, then some they denied and some they stayed.” (Maidah: 70)

[2]     وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِیْ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ رَّسُوْلاً اَنِ اعْبُدُوْ اللّٰہَ وَاجْتَنِبُوْا الطَّاغُوْتَ “And in every nation We appointed a messenger who preached to worship Allah….” (Nahl: 36)

[3]     Saying of Hazrat Ali (a.s.): Nahjul Balagha – Subhi Saleh, pp. 43-44. فَبَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رُسُلَهٗ وَ وَاتَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْبِيَائَهٗ لِيَسْتَأْدُوهُمْ مِيثَاقَ فِطْرَتِهٖ وَ يُذَكِّرُوهُمْ مَنْسِيَّ نِعْمَتِهٖ وَ يَحْتَجُّوا عَلَيْهِمْ بِالتَّبْلِيغِ.

[4]     Holy Quran, Aa’raaf:158

[5]     Holy Quran, Al-Lail:11

[6]     Ghaibat Nomani, p. 130

[7]     Al-Kafi Vol. 1, p. 253, ‘Basaerud-Darajaat’, p. 488. Kamaluddin, p. 203

[8]     Vide ‘Ghaibat-e-Nomani’, p. 139, with minor difference in ‘Usool- e-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 253, ‘Basaerud-Darajaat, p. 448, ‘Kamaluddin’, pp. 202-203.

[9]     “He does not speak on his own, but what is revealed to him” (Najm: 3-4).

[10]    Holy Quran, Ahzaab: 36

[11]    There are countless references available for this incidence, not only in Shia books but also in Sunni books. For instance, some of the famous Sunni books are: Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal, Part I, pp. 111, 159, 333, Sharhe Nahjul Balagha by Ibn Abil Hadid, vol. 3, pp. 263,282. Kifayatut-Talib by Hafiz Ganji-e-Shafai in Chapter 51, Tafseer-e-Tabari under the verse وَاَنْذِرْ عَشِیْرَتَکَ الْاَقْرَبِیْنَ “Warn your nearest relations”, Tarikh-ul-Umam-wal-Moluk, p. 217 from different versions. Some vain and prejudiced persons have tried to dilute the importance of this matter by ignoring it deliberately. These persons did not have the forbearance to accept the glaring truth.

A contemporary author from Egypt, and a renowned litterateur, Mohammad Hasnain Haikal, a famous Sunni author has mentioned this anecdote in his biography, “The life of Mohammad”, published in 1354 A.H. on page 104, in these words: “On that day Prophet of Allah introduced Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as his immediate successor.” However a majority of the Sunnis criticized him (Haikal) for mentioning this event. Hence, in the later editions this anecdote was omitted completely. Is this justice? Justice

[12]    In history, the event of ‘Ghadeer’ had made such an indelible mark that it is quoted by almost all the historians. For details you can refer to ‘Al-Ghadir’ by Allamah Abdul Husain Amini, ‘Abaqaatul-Anwaar’ by Mir Hamid Husain Hindi, ‘Ahqaaqul-Haq’ by Qazi Noorullah Shustari.

[13]    Since Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said this tradition hence it has been widely quoted by Sunnis and Shiite traditionalists. He said “The similitude of my Ahlul Bait amongst you is like the Ark of Noah. Whoever boards it will achieve salvation and whoever stays off it will perish. Refer ‘Al-Mustadrak’, Vol. 2, p. 343, vol. 3, p. 150. Printed atHyderabad, ‘Fazael Al-Khamsa min sehahe sitta’, vol. 1, pp. 59, 65

[14]    Holy Quran Nisa; 59

[15]    For details refer ‘Muntakhabul-Athar’ by Lutfullah Safi Gul-paygaani, p. 74, Hadis No. 36, p. 101, Hadis no. 4.

[16]    There are many verses revealed in support of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). Allamah Sayed Hashim Bahrani has quoted 248 verses in his book ‘Ghaayatul Maram’. Similarly about 84 verses are quoted from Shia and Sunni channels in the eulogy of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) in the 3rd Volume of ‘Ahaqaaul Haq.’

[17]    ‘Al Ghadeer’ of Allamah Shaikh Abdul Husain Amini, vol.

[18]    ‘Ahqaaqul-Haq’, vol. 2, p. 399

[19]    Vide Nahjul Balagha, ‘Khutba-e-Shiqshiqayya’, where Hazrat Ali (a.s.) expressed his sentiments and distressing pain of heart.

[20]    Holy Quran Saff: 8

[21]    This tradition is recorded by many Sunni scholars from different versions. After this there does not remain any room for skeptics to maintain their stance. Shahid-e-Salis Qazi Noorullah Shustari has compiled a book on the subject by the title of ‘Ahaqaqul; Haq’, Ayatullah Uzma Aqa-e-Sayed Shahabuddin Najafi Marashi wrote footnotes on the book and added a lustre of vantage to the book. For reference of this particular tradition, refer the 9th, vol. of the book pp. 309,357, 376.

[22]    Holy Quran Ankaboot: 48

[23]    Al – Mustadrak; 2 / 343 ; 3 / 150

[24]    ‘Muntakhabul-Athar’, pp. 99-100; ‘Ghaibat-e-Noomani’, p. 81, wherein those traditions are recorded which mention the names of Imams.

[25]    عَنْ جَابِرْ بِنْ سَمْرَہُ.قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ یَقُوْلُ.یَکُوْنُ اِثْنٰی عَشَرَ اَمِیْرًا فَقَالَ کَلِمَۃً لَمْ اَسْمَعْھَا فَقَالَ اَبِیْ اِنَّہُ قَالَ کُلُّھُمْ مِنْ قُرَیْشٍ  (Saheeh Bukhari, vol. 9, p. 81). Muslim has also recorded in his Saheeh as follows: لَا یَزَالُ الدِّیْنُ قَائِمًا حَتّٰی تَقُوْمَ السَّاعَۃُ اَوْیَکُوْنُ عَلَیْکُمْ اِثْنَا عَشَرَ خَلِیْفَۃً کُلُّھُمْ مِنْ قُرَیْشٍ. Fazaael al-Khamsah Min al-Sehaah al-Sittah, vol. 2, p. 23