Exegesis of Ziyarat-e-Naahiyah (contd)
(Continued from the previous Al-Muntazar Muharram Issue)
“Peace be upon the one who remained patient in all calamities (for the satisfaction of Allah)”
The root word of ‘muhtasib’ is ‘h-s-b’ and it is the Nominal Subject of Baab ‘Ifteaal’ whose infinitive is ‘Ihtesaab’. The word ‘Ihtesaab’ has various interpretations but here it refers to a person who performs an action for the sake of Allah, the Almighty. In the Arabic Lexicon, ‘Ihtesaab’ is defined thus:
‘Ihtesaaban’ means for the sake of Allah’s satisfaction and to attain divine rewards.
[Lisaan al-Arab by Ibn Manzoor, vol. 1, p. 315]
In traditions, it is interpreted as follows: Jaabir al-Jo’fi narrates that Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) clarified that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said: “The one who pronounces Azaan (call for prayer) for Allah’s pleasure is like the one who has raised his sword in the way of Allah (for Jehaad).”
[Wasaael al-Shia by Shaikh Hurr al-Aameli (r.a.), vol. 5, p. 374, chapter 2, H. 6824]
The other word in this statement is ‘al-Saabir’ which refers to the one who is patient. It is a Nominal Subject. Undoubtedly, Imam Husain (a.s.) displayed such level of patience that can put any endurance to shame but there was never a speck of anxiety on his forehead. By Allah! Even if all the ink in the world dries up, it can never do justice to the tolerance levels of Imam Husain (a.s.).
“Peace be upon the oppressed one who was without an aide”
The root of ‘Mazloom’ is ‘z-l-m’ and it is a Nominal Predicate. It means the one who was oppressed. None in history have been troubled as much as Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) and his progeny (a.s.). The truth is that had these mountains of atrocities befallen someone else then he would have surely crumbled.
‘Without an aide’ indicates towards that time when none of friends and helpers of Imam Husain (a.s.) remained. When all the companions, near ones and children were martyred in the way of Allah, Imam Husain (a.s.) then raised a cry for help and Janabe Ali Asghar (a.s.) leaped out of the cradle on the floor. Imam Husain (a.s.) brought his 6 month old infant to the battlefield which later resulted in the martyrdom of the child. After this Imam Husain (a.s.) was left alone without any helper or aide.
“Peace be upon the one resting in the pure soil”
The root word of ‘Saakin’ is ‘s-k-n’ and Saakin is its Nominal Subject which means the one who resides or is settled. ‘Turbah’ means soil and ‘Zaakiyah’ means pure. ‘Zaakiyah’ is the feminine of ‘Zaaki’ which is also a Nominal Subject. According to Shia beliefs, there is no land superior to the land of Karbala. For instance, it is found in traditions that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said:
“The land of Kaaba once said in pride ‘is there anyone like me? The house of Allah is built on me. People from far-off places visit me. I have been referred to as the Sanctuary (Haram) of Allah and a place of amnesty.’ (The moment this thought occurred in its mind) Allah revealed upon it ‘Keep quiet and calm down! Your honour as compared to the honour which I have granted the land of Karbala is like a drop of water on a needle dipped in the sea. If it was not for the dust of Karbala, I would not have honored you. If it was not for the one who will settle in the land of Karbala, I would have not created you nor would I have created the house about which you boasted. Therefore, settle down, calm down and be humble, lowly and submissive before the land of Karbala. Never be proud or arrogant before it or I will make you sink and throw you in Hellfire.”
[Kaamil al-Ziyaaraat by Ibn Qulawayh, p. 267, chapter 87]
The above tradition clearly proves that no land can be compared to Karbala.
“Peace be upon the master of the lofty dome”
‘Al-Saamiyah’ is the Nominal Subject of the root ‘s-m-w’ which means elevated and lofty. We have already mentioned earlier that in this Ziyaarat, Imam Husain (a.s.) has been addressed as ‘Peace be upon the one beneath whose dome, prayers are answered.’ In other words, the elevated status which has been spoken about in this sentence is not just from the aspect of height but more importantly it is the spiritual, transcendent and loftiness of its status. Seeking of desires beneath this dome is excessively emphasized because it is a place where prayers are accepted.
“Peace be upon the one who was purified by the Almighty (Allah)”
‘Tahhara’ is the third person singular (masculine) of Baab Taf’eel. The pronoun ‘hu’ is its predicate and ‘al-Jaleel’ is the subject of the action. It is an attribute of Allah. This statement of Ziyaarat-e-Naahiyah elucidates the purification of Imam Husain (a.s.) which Allah has revealed in the Holy Quran through the Verse of Purification (Aayat-e-Tat’heer). Imam Husain (a.s.) is among those people of the cloak whom impurity cannot reach. Allah the Almighty announces in Surah Ahzaab, verse 33:
“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House, and to purify you a (thorough) purification.”
This verse is famous as Aayat-e-Tatheer. Allah the Almighty has assured the purification of these holy personalities in this verse. Undoubtedly, there cannot be any guarantee greater than the one by Allah Himself.
It is worth pondering that Imam-e-Zamana (a.t.f.s.) has recounted the purity of Imam Husain (a.s.) by relating it to the powerful attribute of Allah, ‘al-Jaleel’. Although only Allah and His Proof (a.t.f.s.) are aware of the hidden reason behind this but apparently this could indicate that those who were involved in the martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.) will have to face Allah’s wrath in this world, in Barzakh as well as in the hereafter. Allah knows best what is right.
“Peace be upon the one in whom (whose service) Jibraeel took pride”
The root of ‘Iftakhara’ is ‘f-kh-r’ and it is third person singular (masculine) of the past tense in Baab-e-Ifte’aal. Those who wish to know the manner in which Janabe Jibraeel (a.s.) has served Imam Husain (a.s.) which was indeed a cause of pride for Jibraeel (a.s.) can refer to 43rd and 44th volumes of Behaar al-Anwaar.
“Peace be upon the one who was comforted in his cradle by Mikaaeel”
The root word of ‘naaghaa’ is ‘n-gh-y’ and this is the third person singular (masculine) of the past tense of Baab-e-Mufaa’alah. ‘Naaghaa’ means to hum lullabies. Ibn Manzoor writes:
“Lullaby (naghyah) is similar to vocal melodies (naghmah)”
[Lisaan al-Arab, vol. 15, p. 335]
‘Mahd’ means cradle.
As per some traditions it was Jibraeel (a.s.) who chanted these serenades.
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: “Jibraeel (a.s.) used to recite lullabies to him in his cradle.”
[Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 44, p. 140, H. 7 narrating from Uyoon al-Mo’jizaat by Syed Murtaza (a.r.), Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 99, p. 191, Ziyaarat-e-Jaame’ah]
Besides, what status would that infant hold, who was cheered in his cradle by proximate angels like Jibraeel and Mikaeel (a.s.) and the fact that they took pride in this service! Glory be to Allah! But the very same individual viz. Imam Husain Ibn Ali (a.s.) is now on the land of Karbala, the accursed Shimr has mounted on him and is beheading him. Undoubtedly, the divine throne would have shuddered angels would be weeping over this.
“Peace be upon the one regarding whom and his family oaths were broken”
‘Nakasa’ means to default or break. ‘Nukesat’ is the passive voice in the third person singular (feminine). ‘Zimmah’ refers to oath and covenant. ‘Haram’ refers to people of the house.
This covenant was breached at the time of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) itself. Hence, those who came to fight him in the battle of Jamal are known as ‘Naakeseen’. It is mentioned in traditions that Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) said:
“I have been ordered to fight the Naakeseen (Battle of Jamal), Qaaseteen (Battle of Siffin) and Maareqeen (Battle of Nahrwaan).”
[Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 29, p. 432 narrating from al-Khesaal of Shaikh Saduq (a.r.)]
These were the same people, or their followers and those in agreement with their actions, who had gathered in Karbala to battle the Chief of Martyrs Imam Husain (a.s.). Not only did they violate their promise in Karbala but they didn’t care less even for his family. It should be noted that the family of Imam Husain (a.s.) is Allah’s family. Hazrat Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (a.s.) has informed:
“Abu Saeed al-Khudri narrates from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) who warned, ‘Three things are extremely venerated near Allah. The one who has protected them, Allah shall secure his religious and worldly affairs and the one who violates them Allah shall not safeguard him. They are the sanctity of Islam, my sanctity and the sanctity of my progeny.”
[Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 24, p. 185, H. 2 narrating from al-Khesaal of Shaikh Saduq (a.r.), vol. 1, p. 146]
It is evident from the aforementioned tradition that the condition of Muslims in the world today i.e. humiliation, disgrace, ignorance, bloodshed, etc. is only due to they not protecting the honour of Allah. As a result, Allah did not care for their respect.
“Peace be upon the one due to the spilling of whose blood, the sanctity of Islam was violated”
The root word of ‘Intahakat’ is ‘n-k-h’ and it is the passive voice in the first person singular (feminine) of the past tense. The literal meaning of the word ‘intehaak’ is to get hold of those things whose use is forbidden. Here, it means to destroy. Those who spilt the pure blood of Imam Husain (a.s.) actually desecrated the honour of Islam, as is evident from the tradition mentioned previously.
The root word of ‘Iraaqah’ is ‘r-y-q’. It is the infinitive of Baab-e-If’aal and it means ‘to spill’. Whenever something spills out excessively then it is called ‘reeqah’.
Let us look at two traditions in this regard:
Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari narrates that I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) say: Three things shall complain on the Day of Qiyamat – The Book (Holy Quran), the Mosque and the Family. The Book shall say, ‘O my Lord! They distorted me (my meanings) and destroyed me.’ The mosque shall wail, ‘O my Lord! They abandoned me and squandered me.’ The Family (my Ahle Bait (a.s.)) will complain, ‘O our Lord! They killed us, rejected us and left us alone.’ Then all of them will go down on their knees so that their plea is heard. Allah, Mighty be His Majesty, shall respond, ‘Leave them to me. I am more deserving for this (punishing them).
[Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 24, p. 186, H. 3 narrating from al-Khesaal of Shaikh Saduq (a.r.), vol. 1, p. 146]
Imam Moosa Ibn Ja’far (a.s.) has narrated from his noble father (a.s.) concerning the exegesis of Surah Hajj (22): Verse 40 “And whoever respects the sacred ordinances of Allah, it is better for him with his Lord”: these are three sacred ordinances and respecting them is obligatory. Then the one who has violated any one of His sanctities has indeed associated with Allah (Shirk). The first is dishonouring the sanctity of Allah concerning His Sacred House, second is distorting the Book and acting against it and third is cutting off from whatever has been made obligatory concerning our love and obedience.
[Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 24, p. 186, H. 5 narrating from al-Khesaal of Shaikh Saduq (a.r.), vol. 1, p. 146]
“Peace be upon the one who was bathed in the blood of his own wounds”
‘Mughassal’ is the one who has been given ghusl (bathed). It is the Nominal Predicate of Baab-e-Taf’eel. ‘Damm’ means blood and ‘Jeraah’ is the plural of ‘Jarh’ or ‘Jurh’.
This statement of the ziyaarat indicates that on the day of Aashuraa, Imam Husain (a.s.) was completely drenched from head to toe, in the blood emerging from his wounds. The accursed Shimr called out to his filthy soldiers, “May your mothers mourn over you! What are you waiting for? Attack Husain, because wounds and arrows have made him completely feeble and frail.” They immediately pounced on Imam Husain (a.s.) from all sides. One wretched person Haseen Ibn Tameem (may Allah curse him) struck him on his lips. Abu Ayyub Ghanawi (may Allah curse him) shot an arrow on his neck. Zar’ah Ibn Shareek al-Tameemi (may Allah damn him) attacked his shoulder. Imam Husain (a.s.) fell from his horse…
(To be continued Insha Allah in the next issue)