Taharat and Najasat
Islam is the religion of purity and taharat as it is mentioned in the Holy Quran:
"Surely Allah loves those who repent and those who are purified."
(Surah Baqarah: 222)
According to the Ahle Bait (a.s.),
"Purity is an integral part of the faith."
(Behaarul Anwaar, vol. 62, p. 291, H.72)
IMPURE THINGS (NIJAASAAT):
Urine and faeces of human beings and of those animals whose meat is prohibited to eat and whose blood gushes out forcefully when its life (jugular) vein is severed, are impure (najis).
The semen and dead body of human beings and of those animals whose blood gushes out irrespective of whether their meat is lawful or unlawful, is najis.
Dogs and pigs who live on land are impure, and even their hair, bones, paws and nails and all their body liquids are impure.
All alcoholic liquors and beverages, which intoxicate a person, are impure. Beer, which is prepared from barley (‘Aabe Jau’) is impure. However, barley water, which is medically prepared (‘Maa-e-Shaeer’) is pure.
While cooking, if an impure thing falls into the food, irrespective of its quantity, the entire food along with the vessel in which it was being cooked becomes impure. It will not become pure even by boiling or heating the food.
It is prohibited (haraam) to eat or drink impure things.
If a pure (paak) thing touches an impure thing and one of them or both of them are so moist that moisture of one is transferred to the other, then the pure thing will become impure.
If there is a doubt, whether a pure thing has become impure, then that thing is pure. Similarly, if there is a doubt whether an impure thing has become pure, then that thing is impure.
To make impure the letters and pages of the Holy Quran, or a thing on which the names of Allah or Prophets (a.s.) or Imams (a.s.) is written, is prohibited. And if these become impure or fall in an impure place, then it is necessary to remove the impurity and make them pure.
While using the toilet for relieving oneself, it is prohibited (haraam) that the front or the back part of one’s body faces the Holy Ka’ba. Similarly, it is prohibited to relieve oneself in lanes, special roads, property of a person who has not granted permission for the purpose and at a place which is dedicated (waqf) exclusively for the beneficiaries.
Moreover, it is abominable (makrooh) to sit for relieving oneself on the highway or in lanes or in front of doors of the house or under the shade of a fruit-yielding tree, in the burrows of animals, in water, especially in stagnant water. Also, it is abominable to urinate while standing or on hard ground or while facing the wind.
PURIFYING AGENTS (MUTAHHARAAT)
(1) Mutlaq Water (Pure Water): It makes impure things pure.
(2) Muzaaf Water (Mixed Water): Water, which is mixed, like fruit juice, rose water etc. cannot make impure thing pure, nor can it be utilised for performing wudhu or ghusl. And even if little impurity falls in it or mixes with it, mixed water becomes impure irrespective of its (Muzaaf water’s) quantity.
(3) Kur Water: Water which fills a container whose length, breadth and height are 3 1/2 span each, is called as Kur Water.
(In order to make an impure thing pure with Kur water, it is necessary to remove the original impurity before washing it with Kur Water.) If an impure thing falls into a vessel of water whose quantity is kur or more, then it will not become impure. But if the smell, taste or colour of the water changes due to the impurity, then the water becomes impure.
(4) Water that gushes forth from the earth is considered as spring or well water.
(5) If a thing becomes impure and it does not contain original impurity in it, then it will become pure with rain water.
(6) Vessel or any other thing, which has become impure should be washed thrice with Qaleel Water (water that is less than Kur water.)
(7) If a dog licks a vessel, then that vessel should first be rubbed with dry and pure dust (earth, soil) and then washed with water.
(8) If a person makes an impure thing pure by washing it with his own hand, then his hand also becomes pure along with that thing.
(9) If the sole of the feet or shoe becomes impure due to walking on impure earth then by walking on dry and pure earth, in such a manner that the original impurity is removed, the sole becomes pure. There is no need to wash it with water.
(10) The earth, building, doors and other stationary things can be made pure with the help of sunrays, with the following conditions:
(a) The original impurity should be removed.
(b) The impure part should be wet and should be dried only by the rays of the sun falling upon it directly and continuously.
(11) If the form of an impure thing changes in such a way that it takes the form of a pure substance, the new form will be considered as pure. E.g. Impure wood is burnt into ashes, wine turns into vinegar etc. In both the cases the changed form i.e. ashes and vinegar are pure.
(12) If the blood of a human or that of an animal whose blood gushes out when its life vein is cut is sucked by an insect whose blood does not gush out and it becomes the part of latter’s body, then such blood will be considered as pure.
(13) The body of an animal that has become impure due to contact with original impurities like blood or with something else that has become impure after coming into contact with an impure substance like impure water, then when such impure substance is removed from the animal’s body, the body becomes pure. The above law holds good even for the human body, involving parts that are on the inside, like the mouth, nose, ears, etc.