Expression of Joy and Congratulation
To congratulate someone on a joyous and happy occasion is human as well as idiosyncratic principle. Congratulations are also a means of expression of proximity. It is of great significance on the occasion of Eid amongst we Muslims. Even broken relations are patched up with such congratulations. Apart from several other benefits of congratulating and complimenting, one major benefit is that the one who is congratulating cannot claim unawareness of the situation.
AN IMPORTANT DAY OF JOY IN ISLAM:
The incident of Ghadeer holds great significance in Islamic history. On this day, religion was perfected and bounties completed. The most joyous occasion for a man is the moment when his efforts start bearing fruit. A builder is immensely happy on the day when he sees with his own eyes, his building complete from every aspect. This joy is especially more when he has toiled hard with sweat and blood to complete the structure despite several obstructions from his enemies and detractors.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) laid the foundation of the building of Islam in the rocky and barren desert of the Arabian Peninsula , where hearts were harder han rock and more barren than the desert. But he (s.a.w.a.), by his great personality and steadfastness, laid the foundation and commenced constructing the building of Islam. He cemented it by wisdom and knowledge. He beautified and perfected it by the fundamentals and principles of religion by edicts as well as beliefs, morality as well as worship by social as well as individual rights. Then, what was the missing stone, that the great Creator, the Almighty, had not awarded a completion certificate? It is but natural that unless and until a building does not get a completion certificate, it cannot be called as complete and all the efforts of the builder undoubtedly go in vain.
PERFECTION OF RELIGION:
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was passing through the last days of his life. It was the last year of his life when he was returning from what would be his last Hajj. The moths of the light of messengership were having a last glimpse of his holiness and turning towards their respective destinations. But the noble Prophet (s.a.w.a.) could not yet present the nation with the announcement of the completion of his religion. Perhaps, he (s.a.w.a.) may be demanding a completion certificate from his Lord by looking towards the sky, time and again.
Now, it’s clear that whenever the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) gets this completion certificate and the reason for its allotment, both the time and the cause will be a very joyous occasion and that particular moment will be the centre of all glories and happiness.
THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF MASTERSHIP:
The moment the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) announced the mastership of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), from the top of the pulpit in front of a crowd of over one lakh Muslims, in Ghadeer-e-Khum by proclaiming, “Of whomsoever I am his master, Ali is his master too”, that very second the announcement of the perfection of religion, completion of bounties and the satisfaction of the Almighty was revealed. This verse became the evidence of the perfection of structure of religion and the basic aim of its construction was achieved. All these things were due to the mastership of Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.). Whereas this announcement was not only a great honor bestowed on Hazrat Ali (a.s.) but also a source of safety from Allah’s chastisement. Therefore, it is necessary for the Muslims to present their congratulations on this day in the service of Hazrat Ali (a.s.).
CONGRATULATIONS BY ABU BAKR AND UMAR:
Zaid Ibn Arqam narrates that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: “O People Say that we take this oath by heart and promise by our tongues that we shall convey this message to our children as well as our relatives. And we shall not distort it whatsoever. You are witness over me and Allah shall suffice as a witness. You say only whatever I have taught you. Go and salute Ali (a.s.) as Ameerul Momeneen and say: “All praise is for Allah Who guided us to this path and guidance was not possible for us, had Allah not guided us to this path.” God is the Hearer of all voices and is Aware of all those who breach trust. Whosoever violates this trust he shall harm himself. And whosoever fulfils his promise to God, he shall be given a great reward. Therefore say whatever satisfies Allah and if you disbelieve, then indeed Allah is Needless from You.” After this, the people rushed towards him (s.a.w.a.) and were saying: “We heard you and obeyed Allah and His Messenger from our hearts.” The first to congratulate the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.) among the associates were Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Talha and Zubair. Then, it was the turn of the Muhajereen and the Ansars and then the rest of the Muslims.
Till then the time of Zohr arrived and the Zohr-Asr prayers were performed jointly. Again, the series of congratulations flowed till the prayers of Maghreb-Esha were performed jointly. The people paid allegiance and congratulated at least thrice.” (Al-Wilayah1 by Mohibuddin Tabari, extracted from Al-Ghadeer, Volume 1, page 270).
In some traditions, it is said that after the announcement of Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s mastership, a tent was put on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.aw.a.)’s order. The first to congratulate was Umar, he said: “O Son of Abu Talib Congratulations.’ You have become the master of every believer, men and women.” Umar’s compliments to Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and his acceptance of Ali (a.s.) as master of every believing man and woman is narrated by sixty great Sunni scholars.
(Al-Ghadeer, Vol. 1, page 271).
It is not matter of one era or period because on close analysis, it is observed that scholars of different centuries have narrated this incident.
MOTHER OF BELIEVERS:
When everyone paid allegiance to Hazrrat Ali (a.s.), then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) ordered his wives, i.e. “mothers of believers” to congratulate Hazrat Ali (a.s.), pay allegiance to him and salute Ameerul Momeneen.
(Al-Ghadeer, Vol. 1, page 271). Accepting Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as a master by Umar is not limited to the day of Ghadeer that it may be said that he did it in accordance with the custom of the day, taking into consideration the people’s sentiments. Actually, he was the FIRST to congratulate while the others paid allegiance after him. Apart from this, there are various instances in historical books where he has accepted Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as his master even during the period of his caliphate. Not only that, he even caught hold of those who did not accept Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as their master, which means that it was such an evident fact that neither did he deny nor did he allow others to do so.
ONE WHO DOES NOT ACCEPT HAZRAT ALI (a.s.) IS NOT A BELIEVER:
Al-Muwaffiq Bin Ahmad Al-Makki Al-Kharazmi in his book “Al-Manaqib’ page 97 narrates that two Arabs involved in a litigation came to Umar. Umar told Abul Hasan (Ali) to solve their dispute. He solved their dispute and the judgement went against one of them. The one against whom the judgement had gone, remarked “O Ameerul Momeneen (Umar)! Is he (Ali) capable of solving our dispute?” As soon as Umar heard this remark, he rushed towards that man, caught hold of his collar and said: “Woe unto you Don’t you know who he is? “He is my master and the master of every believer and whosoever does not accept him as master, then he is not a believer.”
You see, how clearly Umar announces that whoever does not accept the mastership of Hazrat All (a.s.), he is not a believer. And after accepting Islam, There are two possibilities, One is Belief, the other is Hypocrisy. There’s no third possibility. You can judge yourself as to what is a man’s position after refusing Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s mastership. This incident has been narrated not only by Kharazmi but many others. Prominent among these are: Ar-Riyaaz-un-Nazarah by Mohibud-deen-e-Tabari Vol. 2, page 224, 225, Zakha-erul Uqba page 67, 68, As-Sawaaeq-ul-Mohreqa, page 107. For further details, you can refer to Abaqaatul Anwaar, Vol. 9, page 147,148 (printed by Moassassatul Be’sat).
THE DISTRESS OF COMPANIONS AND UMAR’S ANSWER:
Umar’s acceptance of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as his master is not limited to this aspect only but he used to show great respect towards Hazrat Ali (a.s.) due to his being Master. This respect was to such an extent that it led to other’s distress and when they (the companions) could not take it any more, they finally complained to him. (Even this incident has been related by Khaarazmi, Mohibuddeen Tabari and Ibn Hajar-e-Makki). One day, they protested: “We see the way you respect Hazrat Ali (a.s.), you do not respect any of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)’s other companions? He replied: “Surely, He is my master.”
(Manaqib, pg. 97, Ar-Riyaaz-un-Nazrah, Vol. 2, pg. 124, As-Sawaaeq-al-Muhreqah, pg. 26).
From this incident, it is clear that Umar preferred Hazrat Ali (a.s.) over other companions and respected him the most due to his being Master. This preference and respect indicates that Umar did not take the meaning of “Mawla” as a friend but as “Master”, therefore since Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was the most superior of all companions, he was the one who deserved to be the caliph. Finally, it is appropriate and necessary to bring to you a conversation between Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and Abu Bakr. We are narrating this incident from the prestigious book of the famous scholar Shaikh Saduq, ‘Al-Khisaal”, part II, page 459.
Hazrat Ali (a.s.) asked Abu Bakr. Tell me what characteristics leads man to Caliphate? Abu Bakr replied : To advise people towards truth, loyalty, refraining from cheating and deception, love, good character, justice, knowledge of Qur’an, power of judgement, distancing oneself from worldly lures, seeking justice for the oppressed from the oppressor whether he is from us or not.” Then he became silent. Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “I give you God’s Promise, tell me whether these attributes and characteristics are found in you or me?” Abu Bakr: “O Abul Hasan, Indeed they are found in you.”
Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “In the name of God, I ask you, who answered first to the Holy Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) call? You or me?” Abu Bakr: “Definitely, you were the one.” Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “I again ask you in the name of God, On the occasion of Hajj who delivered Surah Bara’at (Tawba) for the whole nation? Myself or You?” Abu Bakr: “Surely, you had done.” Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “For the sake of God, tell me. On the day of prayers (at the time of migration), who protected the life of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) Myself or you?” Abu Bakr : “Indeed, you did.” Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “In God’s name, Tell me whose mastership was discussed in the Qur’anic verse of giving Zakaat while in Ruku, along with the mastership of Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w.a.) (referring to Surah 5, Verse 55) My mastership or Your?” Abu Bakr: “Your Mastership was proclaimed.” Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “By God, explain this to me too; whom did the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) proclaim as the Master of all believers, including you, on the day of Ghadeer? It was me or was it you?” Abu Bakr:” Verily, he (s.a.w.a.) had declared you.” Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “For Allah’s sake, tell me who was given the messenger of Allah’s minister ship and who was likened to the position of Haroon as compared to Moosa?” Abu Bakr: “You were the one.”
Hazrat Ali (a.s.): “For whom did the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) order to salute as Ameerul Momeneen?” Abu Bakr: “To you.”
All these discussions clearly indicate that everyone admitted to Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s mastership, superiority, pre-eminence and all other excellent virtues and characteristics. They could not even tolerate those who denied these virtues. God knows, under whose guidance and instructions do today’s Nadwis and Nomanis try to hide these virtuous attributes and glorifications? Also, one wonders as to why Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was deprived of his right (of Caliphate) despite his overall superiority? What prevented them from giving him (Hazrat Ali) his due even after confessing his pre-eminence? Instead, they always strove to keep him away from his right under any circumstances.
“Due to injustice and pride, they denied them. While they themselves were convinced (of the truth).”
(Surah Naml, 27 : 14)